To remove excess material from a finite 3D block until a
complete 3D form is realized.

Before Direct Carving

Examine the specific piece of material to be used.

Look for these elements of direct carving in the material:

1 Balance Points

2 Centers of Gravity

3 Overall Directions of Motion

4 Primary High Points

1a. Balance Points of the Material

How many ways can this piece of material sit?

1b. Balance Points of the Material

Mark each potential point of contact on the material's
surface.

1c. Balance Points of the Material:

Often balance points and ponts of contact on the original
block will become the primary high points of the finished
sculpture.

1d. Balance Points of the Material:

Can you find the balance points that have become high
points on this sculpture?

2a. Gravitational Center of the Material

Visualize the gravitational center within the block where
all its points of contact meet. This is the material's
Center of Gravity. It is always over the material's point of
contact.

2b. Gravitational Center of the Material

Unless a piece of material is a sphere, it is necessary to
visualize an elongated center-line that passes through its
center of gravity, giving the material a direction of
motion.

2c. Centers of Gravity in Sculptural Forms

On radial objects such as starfish, the center of gravity
is a single point.

On objects that are longer in one direction, such as
humans, that center of gravity remains over the point of
contact.

However, its central motion extends throughout the form
from one end of its longest direction to the other.

3a. Overall Direction of Motion in the Material

Decide which way the entire mass of material is moving.
The viewpoint that tells you the most about the direction of
this material is the correct one.

3b. Overall Direction of Motion in the Material

Start a loop around the material centered on a point
halfway between left and right edges as seen from directly
above the material.

3c. Primary direction of motion of the material

Encircle the entire piece of material returning to the
beginning of the loop.

3d. Secondary direction of motion of the material

Measure the distances between the loop at regular
perpendicular intervals. Repeat on both sides of the loop.

3e. Completed Direction of Motion in the Material

Connect the marks you have made to make a second loop
around the material perpendicular to the first.

The second loop will divide the piece of material into
quarters aligned with its central line of motion.

3f. Overall direction of motion in material

3g. Overall direction of motion in sculpture

4a. Primary high points on Forms

High points on sculptures are the parts of the form that
extend the farthest from the sculpture's center of gravity

The Sculpture will be sitting on one of the original
balance points (points of contact) of the original block

4b. Primary and secondary high points

Find the primary and secondary high points on this
sculpture.

4b. Primary and secondary high points

Find the primary and secondary high points on this
sculpture.

Direct Carving

Can you find the balance points, the center of gravity,
the overall direction of motion, and the primary high points
in this sculpture?

Direct Carving

Can you find the balance points, the center of gravity,
the overall direction of motion, and the primary high points
in this sculpture?